For Canadian citizens planning a move to the United States, understanding the spectrum of immigration options is essential. This guide covers the array of U.S. immigration pathways available to Canadians, from temporary (nonimmigrant) visas to permanent residency (Green Cards), and the potential for dual citizenship.

Temporary U.S. Immigration Options for Canadians

  1. B1/B2 Visa: Ideal for temporary visits for business (B1) or tourism, medical treatment, and certain recreational studies (B2).
  2. TN Visa: Under the USMCA, Canadian professionals in certain fields can secure a TN visa with a U.S. job offer.
  3. H-1B Visa: For “specialty occupations” requiring higher education, the H-1B is a popular choice, though subject to annual caps.
  4. L1 Visa: Facilitates the relocation of employees within international companies to their U.S. offices.
  5. E1 Visa: The Treaty Trader visa caters to Canadians engaged in significant trade predominantly between the U.S. and Canada.
  6. E2 Visa: The Treaty Investor visa is for substantial capital investments in U.S. businesses.
  7. F1/M1 Student Visa: For academic (F1) or vocational/nonacademic (M1) studies in the U.S.

Permanent U.S. Immigration Options for Canadians

  1. Green Card Through Family: U.S. citizens or Green Card holders can sponsor immediate relatives.
    • Immediate Relative Visas (IR): For spouses, unmarried children under 21, and parents of U.S. citizen petitioners aged 21 or older.
    • Family Preference Visas (F): For more distant family relationships with U.S. citizens and some relationships with Green Card holders.
  2. Green Card Through Employment: Several employment-based categories, including EB-1, EB-2, and EB-3, cater to various professional qualifications.
  3. Green Card Through Investment: The EB-5 program offers residency through significant investment in the U.S. economy.
  4. Diversity Lottery: Canadians born in eligible countries may apply for the Diversity Visa Lottery.

Dual Citizenship

  • Both the U.S. and Canada permit dual citizenship, allowing Canadians who become U.S. citizens to retain their Canadian citizenship, and vice versa.


Multiple immigration pathways exist for Canadians considering a move to the U.S., each with specific requirements. Carefully evaluate your personal situation, and seek guidance from an immigration attorney to choose the most appropriate option for your circumstances.

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